Nikita Khrushchev rose from obscurity into Stalin's inner circle, unexpectedly triumphed in the battle to succeed Stalin, equally unexpectedly attacked Stalin and embarked on a program of de-Stalinization, and was suddenly ousted from power after his reforms in internal and foreign policy proved erratic and ineffective. Khrushchev was born in the poor southern Russian village of Kalinovka, and his childhood there profoundly shaped his character and his self-image. His parents dreamed of owning land and a horse but achieved neither goal. His father, who later worked in the mines of Yuzovka in the Donbas, was a failure in the eyes of Khrushchev's mother, a strong-willed woman who invested her hopes in her son.
Creation of the Polish People's Republic —48 [ edit ] Wartime devastation, border and population shifts, rebuilding of infrastructure and economy[ edit ] Poland's old and new borders in Before World War IIa third of Poland's population was composed of ethnic minorities.
Poland had about 35 million inhabitants inbut fewer than 24 million inwithin the respective borders. Of the remaining population over three million were ethnic minorities, such as Germans, Ukrainians and Jews, most of whom would soon leave Poland.
The number of ethnically Polish victims was perhaps 2 million. A large proportion of the country's pre-war social and political elite perished and a large proportion were dispersed.
Most of the former German population of 10 million had fled or was expelled to post-war Germany by The Polish state acquired more highly developed western territories and lost the more economically backward eastern regions.
Already in the prewar level of industrial production was exceeded in global and per capita terms during the Three-Year Plan Plan Trzyletniimplemented first and fueled by the collective desire to rebuild shattered lives.
Standard of living of the population of Poland markedly improved. Historian Norman Davies found the new Polish frontiers, from the Polish interests point of view, entirely advantageous, but realized at the cost of enormous suffering and specious justifications.
The radically new Eastern European borders constituted a "colossal feat of political engineering", but could not be derived from immemorial historical determinations, as claimed by the communist propaganda.
He loathed the Soviet practices he experienced while being trained in Russia and Ukraine in the s, but was convinced of the historic necessity of alliance with the Soviet Union. He may have survived the purges because of being imprisoned in Poland for illegal labor-organizing activities in — The Polish communists became the most influential Polish factor in the politics of emerging Poland,  despite having initially minuscule popular support.
Over one million peasant families benefited from parcellation of the larger estates. The population was tired of the years of oppression and conflict and the ideas expressed in the PKWN Manifesto and their progressive implementation attracted widening social support.
On the contrary, business property was supposed to return to its owners as the economic relations become properly regulated. A considerable labor struggle and compulsion were necessary for the PPR to claim the factories and enforce its own rules.
Postwar Polish communist propaganda poster depicting "The giant and the putrid reactionary midget", meaning the communist People's Army soldier and the pro-Western Home Army soldier, respectively The Yalta agreement stipulated a governmental union in Poland of "all democratic and anti-Nazi elements".
The government was "provisional" and the Potsdam Conference soon declared that before a regular government is created, free elections must be held and a permanent constitutional system established.
The People's Party wanted to prevent the communists from monopolizing power and eventually establish a parliamentary polity with a market economy by winning the promised elections. Bierut represented the influx of appointees to the Polish party coming during and after the war from the Soviet Union and imposed by the Soviets, a process accelerated at the time of the PPR Congress of December The party's membership dramatically increased from perhaps a few thousand in early to over one million in The absence of the expected death sentences was their relief.
Between andsomePoles were imprisoned by the Soviet authorities. Many former Home Army members were apprehended and executed.
To circumvent this difficulty, in a national plebiscite, known as the "Three Times Yes" referendum Trzy razy takwas held first, before the parliamentary elections. It was meant to check and promote the popularity of communist initiatives in Poland.
The partial results, reconstructed by the PSL, showed that the communist side was met with little support on the first question. However, after a campaign marked by electoral fraud and intimidation the communists claimed large majorities on all three questions,   which led to the nationalization of industry and state control of economic activity in general, and a unicameral national parliament Sejm.
Many resistance fighters were murdered extrajudicially, or forced to exile. Although the ongoing persecution of the former anti-Nazi and right-wing organizations by state security kept some partisans in the forests, the actions of the Ministry of Public Security known as the UB, Department of SecurityNKVD and the Red Army steadily diminished their numbers.
The right-wing insurgency radically decreased after the amnesty of July  and faded after the amnesty of February On 19 Januarythe first parliamentary elections took place featuring primarily the PPR and allied candidates and a potentially politically potent opposition from the Polish People's Party.
However, the PSL's strength and role had already been seriously compromised due to government control and persecution.
The British and American governments protested the poll for its blatant violations of the Yalta and Potsdam accords. Over the next two years, the communists monopolized political power in Poland.
The socialists' originally tactical decision to collaborate with the communists resulted in their institutional demise.
Poland became a de facto one-party state and a satellite state of the Soviet Union. List of political parties in Poland.After the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev firmly secured his position in Moscow. With the destalinisation programme in full swing the Soviet State re-prioritised its main objectives.
One of the biggest problems was construction of housing, which despite being ten years since the end of the war, was much too slow with millions of people still. A foundation hole gaped on the site until under Nikita Khrushchev it was transformed into a huge public swimming pool.
With the end of the Soviet rule, the Russian Orthodox Church received permission to rebuild the Cathedral of Christ the Savior (February ). Nikita Khrushchev became first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The PZPR's Second Congress deliberated in March The PZPR's Second Congress deliberated in March Cyrankiewicz, previously replaced as prime minister by Bierut, was returned to that post (to remain prime minister until December ).
A Time to Gather Stones: Nomadism After War in Susanne Slavick's Out of Rubble Nikita Khrushchev in the Soviet Union, Mao Tse-tung in China, Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan, and Fidel Castro in Cuba. Jul 23, · “I think the center is going to rise up,” she says in one of several exclusive interviews.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and President John F. Kennedy talk in the residence of the US. Nov 07, · On a Sunday afternoon 25 years ago, as a Boston Globe reporter, I strolled through the rubble of what had been the Berlin Wall, wondering how I might e.