Although the mother may not yet perceive the baby moving, she has actually started to do so.
Therefore one can see that the interactions we first have with our primary caregivers could shape our relationships as adults.
This brings to mind the theory of parenting styles I learned in a previous psychology class. Diana Baumrind developed a theory of four distinct parenting styles which reflect the two dimensions of parenting which are responsiveness and demandingness Arnett, Demandingness reflects the degree to which parents are demanding, have rules and high expectations for their children and it reflects the amount of controlling and monitoring parents have towards their children Arnett, Based on these two dimensions the four types of parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful or disengaged.
Parenting style has been found to greatly influence and affect adolescent development and also could probably affect the relationships with others in a similar fashion that attachment style may. They use their primary caregiver as a "secure base from which to explore" when all is well and use them for consolidation when frightened Arnett,p.
Depending of the attachment style that infants and young children have been exposed to they develop specific patterns of relationships that affect their responses to their adult relationship s. For instance a child that had a secure attachment with their caregivers would be able to develop lasting relationships as adults.
Contrary a child who had an avoidant attachment with their caregivers would have difficulty creating long lasting relationships and would have difficulty to trust others. For the dimension of self image and image of others there are two levels which are the positive and negative and the combination of them composing the four patterns of adult attachment styles.
For instance the secure adult attachment style based on this model is characterized by positive self image with low dependency and by a positive image of others with low avoidance.
From personal experience and from people I know I believe that attachment theory, and the above mentioned model, could accurately be applied to explain relationship patterns.
Personally as a child I developed a secure attachment with my parents as they were responsive to my needs and caring, they were there when I needed them and they provided me with reassurance to explore my environment. As an adult I have been able to develop lasting relationships and I am comfortable with closeness, trusting others, and interdependence.
When considering others from my close environment I also can relate their relationship patterns with the attachment theory and this appears helpful to better understand them.
For instance a close friend of mine and previous colleague seems she has developed a preoccupied attachment style and this could explain her pattern of relationships thus far in her life.
As an adult she developed a preoccupied attachment style and she exhibits this attachment style towards both her friendships and intimate relationships.
|Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development||The complex exchange between parents and children offers the opportunity to influence the child in ways that the typical mom and dad might not even think of on a daily basis. Instead, this term focuses on how the parent acts and reacts to the child.|
|No TrackBacks||Parental Influence on the Emotional Development of Children by Bethel Moges and Kristi Weber When most people think of parenting, they picture changing diapers, messy feeding times, and chasing a screaming child through a crowded grocery store.|
Particularly when it comes to her intimate relationships this type of attachment style is possibly responsible for her two divorces within a five year time frame and her being less satisfied with her romantic relationships. Whenever she entered into a romantic relationship she acted obsessive and was very preoccupied with her relationship.
Most of her relationships were short-lived and even when she ended up getting married her first marriage lasted only one year and her second just a little longer.
The main reason for this, based on what I learned from the attachment theory, seems to be the fact that she entered her relationships quite fast without first really knowing her partner and by being obsessive, anxious, jealous over her relationship it probably discouraged her intimate others and scared them away.
As people are exposed to different attachment styles from very young ages they also are exposed to different parenting styles, and as already mentioned Dania Baumrind developed a theory of four distinctive parenting styles.
One of them is the authoritarian parenting style characterized by parents who are high in demandingness and low in responsiveness Arnett, Authoritarian parents are strict and have high expectations from their children, have set rules and expect obedience without questioning and without really explaining their reasoning to their children Berger, They are obedience and status oriented and expecting their orders to be obeyed without explanation Darling, A child that grows up in a family environment where they do not have the opportunity to communicate, and constantly feel they have to act in a certain way, will have serious problems in many aspects of their development.
They will grow up with low self-esteem, might be depressed, anxious and frustrated and they lag behind in social skills and social adaptability Berger, ; Arnett, Another parenting style is the authoritative style characterized by high demandingness and high responsiveness Arnett, Contrary to the previous style parents set rules and expectations but are open to discussion and negotiation as the parents are willing to listen to their children and guide them when questions arise Arnett, Authoritative parents always maintain the power to say "no" but also they want their children to be assertive, socially responsible, self-regulated and cooperative Darling, A child who grows up in a family where the parents utilize this style are more likely to grow up independent, have self-control, have more developed social skills, able to communicate and make friendships, have healthy relationships and emotional attachments Arnett, From growing in a balanced environment they are less likely to have psychological problems and they become balance adults by themselves.
The next two parenting styles are the permissive and the neglectful, or disengage style. Permissive parents are not demanding, they hardly ever punish their children and do not have a lot of control of their children as they usually let them do whatever they want Arnett, Children growing up in a permissive family will be more likely to have higher self esteem, but they will have poor emotional regulation, are immature and irresponsible Arnett, They may show some developed social skills but actually do not posses them as they have been used to always getting what they want.
The inadequate emotional regulation appears to be a problem for friendship formation Berger, Attachment research has shown that our attachment style with our own parents is the biggest predictor of the attachment style we’ll have with our child. How the child is raised and the parenting style used is a significant influence on that development by affecting the relationship between parent and child.
This supports the Attachment theory in which emphasizes relationship between the child and caregiver as a key factor in development. The Influence of Parenting Styles and Attachment Styles on Relationship Designs Words | 4 Pages Many human developmental psychologists will agree that the attachment styles and parenting styles a child receives is the design for the rest of their relationships.
The purpose of the study was to ascertain the dominant parenting styles of parents in the study area and their influence on studies mainly investigated the influence of parenting styles on children’s academic performance at school.
The findings influence of parenting style on children’s sociability.
The focus of the study, therefore. There are years of research that discuss these different parenting styles in childhood and adolescent development. Try google scholar and look at parenting style as well as attachment theory.
Dec 20, · However, parents differ on how they raise and interact with their children. Growing up with great parents is a great blessing in life, and the way a child is raised influences the kind of person he or she will become.
As attachment styles seem to transfer over generations, so do parenting styles.