Two important moments played a critical role in the development of early Christianity. The first was the decision of the Apostle Paul to spread Christianity beyond the Jewish communities of Palestine into the Greco-Roman world, and the second was the moment when the Emperor Constantine at the beginning of the fourth century accepted Christianity and became its patron. The creation and nature of Christian art were directly impacted by these moments.
Byzantine Religion and Influence The official language of Byzantium at the time of its founding was Latin, the language of Rome; however its locals spoke Greek.
The Code of Justinian was written in Latin. However, over time, Greek replaced Latin as the language of the government. Scholars no longer learned to read Latin, but rather drew inspiration from both the New Testament originally written in Greek and the philosophy and literature of classical Greece.
The large bureaucracy of Byzantium necessitated an efficient educational system to train government workers. It was in the educational system that the influence and legacy of Classical Greece, rather than Classical Rome, was most evident.
Aristocrats often hired tutors for their children; however the workforce of the government normally came from a state organized school system that taught reading, writing and grammar, which were followed by classical Greek literature, philosophy, and medicine.
Boys and girls were educated in the system. Literacy was quite high in Byzantine society. Merchants, manufacturers, clergy, and military personnel had at least a primary education. There was also a school of higher learning at Constantinople which offered instruction in law, medicine and philosophy.
It operated for the life of the Byzantine Empire, more than one thousand years. Byzantine scholarship reflected its Greek roots. Scholars concentrated on the humanities: They produced commentaries on Homer, Plato, and Aristotle; which were used as textbooks in schools along with classical works themselves.
Also, the Enlightenment includes a general recovery and affirmation of the value of pleasure in human lives, against the tradition of Christian asceticism, and the flourishing of the arts, of the criticism of the arts and of the philosophical theorizing about beauty, promotes and . Byzantine Religion and Influence The official language of Byzantium at the time of its founding was Latin, the language of Rome; however its locals spoke Greek. The Code of Justinian was written in Latin. And so, in the arts, for instance, at the beginning of the 20th-century, artists questioned academic art for its lack of freedom and flirted with so many isms: secessionism, fauvism, expressionism, cubism, futurism, constructivism, dada, and surrealism.
Those within the Empire who were educated considered themselves the heirs of classical Greece, and went to great lengths to preserve their legacy. Almost all the literary and philosophical works of classical Greece survive because they were preserved by the Empire. Byzantine Christianity was closely tied to the government, so much so that its emperors are often referred to as caesaropapist, supreme over both church and state.
Constantine himself often intervened in Church matters; it was he who convened the Council of Nicaea in which brought together many bishops and church leaders to consider the position of Arian Christians.
The Arians were followers of a priest from Alexandria named Arius who taught that Jesus had been a mortal man created by God rather than divine and co-equal with God. Many theologians argued to the contrary, teaching that Jesus was both God and man.
Constantine supported the latter position, and attended sessions of the Council of Nicaea to lend his support, although at the time, he had not fully admitted to being Christian. Because of his presence, the council adopted the orthodox view, and Arianism was condemned as heresy.
The Byzantine church was treated by the Emperors as a department of the state. They appointed the Patriarch of Constantinople the highest church office in Byzantium and counterpart to the Pope in Rome. Patriarchs, bishops and priests were instructed to deliver sermons which supported imperial policy and encouraged obedience to the government.
This was a source of conflict that often led to protests when the views of the government were not those of the populace. The most divisive policy adopted by the Byzantine Emperors was that of Iconoclasm. The Empire had a long tradition of producing icons—paintings of Jesus and other religious personages—many of which were magnificent works of art.
They were considered useful as they inspired the popular imagination, and encouraged reverence for the figures depicted in the icons. This caused protests and riots within the Empire as the laity were very fond of Icons.
The debate raged for over a century; and iconoclasm was abandoned in C. Byzantine Christianity also reflected Greek influence. Although Christianity had originated from Jewish sources, theologians sought to harmonize it with cultural Greek traditions, such as philosophy.
Their reasoning was that a religion with Christian revelation and Greek reason would be especially appealing. As a result, Byzantine philosophers began extensive examination of religious questions from a philosophical point of view.
They used philosophy to understand the nature of Jesus and the extent to which he could be both God and man. The debate at times was exceptionally technical, but demonstrated their efforts to understand Christian doctrine in terms of classical philosophy.
The patriarch of Constantinople maintained a school that provided instruction in advanced theology. Thus, Byzantium built its own cultural and religious traditions on Classical Greek foundations, rather than the Classical Latin foundations of the Western church. This difference would ultimately lead to a split of the two churches into the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches.
A number of individuals in Byzantium wished to lead especially holy lives.Bible Crafts for Kids. Collection by Catholic Icing (Lacy) Hebrews Really want excellent ideas about arts and crafts? Find this Pin and more on Bible Crafts for Kids by Catholic Icing (Lacy). Spelunking Equipment instead of an anchor Write different verse on the anchor, or no verse.
Byzantine art is the art of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantine, the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire, moved his capital from Rome to the old Greek city of Byzantium. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself.
But the art of the Eastern Roman Empire that he founded is known as. Early Christian art and architecture or Paleochristian art is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, sometime between and In practice, identifiably Christian art only survives from the 2nd century onwards.
The outstretched hands in Early Christian art represent the so-called "orant" or praying figure. This is the same gesture found in the catacomb paintings of Jonah being vomited from the great fish, the Hebrews in the Furnace, and Daniel in the Lions den. The major political accomplishment of the Renaissance, perhaps, was the establishment of effective central government, not only in the north but in the south as well.
Northern Europe saw the rise of national monarchies headed by kings, especially in England and France. S&S Worldwide offers a huge variety of online arts and crafts supplies for creative projects.
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