June 9, You could easily get asked a 15 marker on any of these concepts, the specification says the following about what you need to know:
Neo-functionalism explains the cause of integration Point Spill-over is the following concept — in order to enjoy the full benefits of integration of the first sector you need to integrate the related sectors.
There are three types of spill-over — functional spill-over, political spill-over and cultivated spill-over. Firstly, functional spill-over, which regards spill-over in an economic context.
For example, this might involve integrating coal and steel, then integrating transport systems so that coal and steel are moved around more easily.
Secondly, there is Political spill-over, where political actors shift their allegiance to a new centre, for example from the national parliament to Brussels. Neo-functionalism is flawed as it assumes that integration in low politics economic will lead to integration in areas of high politics.
This is not possible as issues of high politics are integral to the national interest; so integration will only be possible when national interests coincide, which is possible but unlikely. Neo-functionalism believes areas of high politics can be cultivated into integration, whereas intergovernmentalism believes that the fate of the nation-state should never be subject to the decisions of others.
Title Neo-functionalism proposes a purpose to EU integration. Point Neo-functionalism proposed building a community Europe, through the concept of spillover the theory proposes economic determinism.
Spill-over will eventually lead to a completely integrated Europe with a strong central government. This has not yet been proved true, as EU integration has become a long and difficult process.
This is understandable since it is not exactly easy to integrate together all those policies, economies and people. However this would most probably be the eventual result, which is already visible: The experience of the European Union EU is widely perceived as not just an example, but the model for regional integration.
In recent years, the EU has also been pursuing an increasing number of trade agreements which may in turn lead to spillover. There is no common outlook and getting the major powers of Europe to agree what this should be will be near impossible. Intergovernmentalists would also argue that economic determinism regarding integration is wrong.
It will always be politics that drive integration, while the motive may be economic — to solve a crisis or even just to profit — the key decisions by all actors will be political. Its focus is on human welfare needs, not political conflict and law.
As such there has been much more progress on economic integration than there has on creating a common foreign and security policy.
It believes that the logic of diversity will prevail in areas of high politics e. Title Neo-functionalism provides a good starting point for EU analysis.
Point Neo-functionalism is an accessible theory which provides a good starting point for analysis. As a theory it has the advantages of being able to predict the outcome of integration and clearly explains which actors must be studied in order to explain integration.
Neo-functionalism may provide a starting point for analysis but it requires much more to be able to explain other pressures of integration.
PDF Title Supranational Entrepreneurs played a crucial role in integration Point The role of supranational entrepreneurs within the development of integration within Europe has been crucial.
Characters such as Jean Monnet envisaged and worked continuously towards uniting Europe. Later a similar role was played by Jacques Delors with the creation of the Single European Act SEA and the all-important project that would see the single market and eventually fully Economic and Monetary Union complete.
These characters act in support of integration within Europe and represent an empirical example of cultivated spill-over. Unmitigated pressure from Delors in pushing for the single market ensured that it became a reality in the time it did.
Counterpoint The role of elites acting in their national interest better explains the logic behind integration. Key players such as Charles De Gaulle and his untiring opposition to British membership and Qualified Majority Voting QMV in the Council of Ministers and his success in gaining what he set out to achieve through the Luxembourg compromise demonstrates that the true power actually lay with him and the state.
Another example to contradicting the role Delors played was that of Margaret Thatcher.
Her relentless demand for a British rebate and general demeanour in the European Council demonstrated a powerful state elite getting her way.
The single market came about because Thatcher wanted it more than most and was thus willing to compromise on certain areas of the Single European Act i.
Point The core of Neo-functionalism that spill-over being the main driving force behind continuing integration assumed the automaticity of integration. Once integration has started it will be a self-continuing force that will eventually integrate the whole of Europe - is clearly wrong.
For example no common defence or foreign policy within the community project has been successful. This failure in high politics is fundamental, without a coordinated foreign and security policy the role of the EU in the world is open to question.
Opposition too much further enlargement reduces the role the EU can play outside the union unless a common foreign policy can be agreed.
The fate of the nation-state and the case of Western Europe.The main criticisms of neo-functionalism were based on its failure to predict the trajectory of European integration (particularly from the s) and its lack of a theoretical core .
Secondly, I will give examples of different historical events that favored 1 Treaty of Rome 2 Sandholtz, Wayne, and Alec Stone Sweet, „Neo-functionalism and Supranational Governance‟, in Erik Jones, Anand Menon, and Stephen Weatherill (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, , pp.
22 3 Ibid. either neofunctionalist or intergovernmentalist approach with the . The Contribution of the Neofunctionalist and Intergovernmentalist Theories to the Evolution of the European Integration Process functional fedederalism, a term employed to explain the.
There were some efforts to apply these neo-functionalist theories to integration in other parts of the world, especially in Latin America (Haas, ; Haas and Schmitter, ; Haas, ). The integration process in Europe experienced a crisis in the mid, when General de.
Neo-functionalism was a popular theory of European integration in the s and s. The most prominent neo- functionalist writer was Ernst Haas in his book 'The Uniting of Europe' in Firstly, Neo-functionalism was developed in the second half of the s and is the first, ‘classical’ grand theory/narrative of European integration.
It is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of Ernst B. Haas, an American political scientist and Leon Lindberg, also an American political scientist.