Interstate conflict with regional consequences Large-scale involuntary migration Source: Globally, inequality between countries has been decreasing at an accelerating pace over the past 30 years. Among other things, this has led to an increase in CEO compensation as firms have become larger. This has contributed to anti-establishment sentiment in advanced economies, and although emerging markets have seen poverty fall at record speed, 12 they have not been immune to rising public discontent — evident, for example, in large demonstrations against corruption across Latin America.
As the prevalence of genetically modified organisms GMOs continues to rise, there has been an increasing public interest for information concerning the safety of these products.
Concerns generally focus on how the GMO may affect the environment or how it may affect the consumer. One specific concern is the possibility for GMOs to negatively affect human health. This could result from differences in nutritional content, allergic response, or undesired side effects such as toxicity, organ damage, or gene transfer.
To address these concerns, there have been over research studies comparing the effects of traditional food to genetically modified food, the results of which have been reviewed in various journals , . How these results affect regulation can be found through The Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, which hosts a GM Crop Database that can be searched by the public to find GMO crop history, style of modification, and regulation across the world .
Though knowing who to trust and what to believe regarding this topic is an ongoing battle, major health groups, including the American Medical Association and World Health Organization, have concluded from the research of independent groups worldwide that genetically modified foods are safe for consumers .
Regarding toxicity, this includes any dangers related to organ health, mutations, pregnancy and offspring, and potential for transfer of genes to the consumer. One example is an anti-GMO advocacy group called the Institute for Responsible Technology IRTwhich reported that rats fed a diet containing a GMO potato had virtually every organ system adversely affected after just ten days of feeding .
The IRT stated that the toxicity was the result of genetic modification techniques and not a specific case for that particular potato.
Scientists across the U. To this end, many different types of modifications in various crops have been tested, and the studies have found no evidence that GMOs cause organ toxicity or other adverse health effects. An example of this research is a study carried out on a type of GMO potato that was genetically modified to contain the bar gene.
The product of the bar gene is an enzyme that can detoxify herbicides and thus protects the potato from herbicidal treatment. For each diet, they tracked male and female rats.
Histopathology is the examination of organs for disease at the microscopic level think pathologist doing a biopsy. Histopathological examinations of the reproductive organs, liver, kidneys, and spleen showed no differences between GMO-eating and non-GMO-eating animals.
These researchers had split rats into four diet groups: They fed the rats over 7, times the average human daily consumption of either GMO or non-GMO tomato or sweet pepper for 30 days and monitored their overall health. Finally, they carried out histopathology and again found no differences in the stomach, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, or reproductive organs of GMO versus non-GMO fed rats.
Despite massive ingestion of GMO potato, tomato, or sweet pepper, these studies demonstrated no differences in the vitality or health of the animals, even at the microscopic level.
Experiments like these on humans would be completely unethical. Fortunately, prior to these studies years of work have demonstrated that rodents, like mice and rats, are acceptable models for humans, meaning rodent responses to drugs, chemicals, and foods can predict human response.
Rat feeding studies like these, in which rats are fed a potential toxic item and monitored for adverse effects, are considered both specific and sensitive for monitoring toxicity of foods and widely used in the food regulation industry . The test of time: GMOs and their effect on our offspring Although scientists have been able to demonstrate that GMOs are not toxic to the animals that eat them, as described above and elsewhere, what about side effects being passed on to our next generations?
To discern whether GMO crops affect fertility or embryos during gestation, a group from South Dakota State University again turned to studies on rats. In this case, the rats were eating a type of GMO corn, more commonly known as Bt corn.
Bt stands for Bacillus thuringiensis, a microbe that produces insecticidal endotoxin and has been used as a topical pesticide against insects since see this article.
To allow corn to directly generate this endotoxin, scientists introduced a gene from Bt into the genetic material DNA of corn. To address buildup of toxicity over time, this group monitored the GMO-eating rats not only for the lifetime of one generation, but also three additional generations.
For each generation, they tracked the fertility of parents and compared the health of the embryos from parents that ate Bt corn to those with parents that did not . Toxic effects can arise in many places and in many ways, but some organs are more susceptible to damage than others, and monitoring them is a good readout for other difficult-to-see effects.
Testes are considered a particularly sensitive organ for toxicity tests because of the high degree of cell divisions and thus high susceptibility to cellular or molecular toxins. To examine the affect of Bt corn on testicular health, the researchers tracked testicular development in fetal, postnatal, pubertal, and adult rats for all four generations.
The group found no change in testicular health or litter sizes in any generation. Likewise, ingestion by pregnant mothers had no effect on fetal, postnatal, pubertal, or adult testicular development of her offspring.
Other groups have monitored toxicity over time as well. For example, the group studying the bar GMO potato also wanted to see if organs and reproductive health were sensitive to GMOs over long exposure times .
To do this, they examined the fertility and gestation periods of GMO-eating mothers compared to non-GMO-eating mothers for five generations. They tracked animal body weight, bone, eye, and thymus development, and general retardation.
Like the studies on Bt corn, in all cases, they found no significant differences between the GMO potato and non-GMO potato diets, suggesting that there is no buildup or inheritance of toxicity, even over multiple generations.
Work from independent researchers has investigated various aspects of GMO safety, especially concerning consumer health and toxicity.With the Monsanto focused on the genetically modified (GM) seeds and GM foods the company recovered and is now prospering worldwide providing high yield foods and jobs to nearly 20, people in countries.
Genetically modified foods have recently been in the new headlines for both their positive attributes and the negatives of genetic modification, this essay will look at the effects Genetically Modified foods have on the economy, environment and you.
The side of risk communication that built my reputation and sent my children to college was outrage management: what to do when people are excessively frightened or angry about a small hazard and you want to calm them down. Occupational Hygiene.
The aim is to recognise, evaluate and control the risks to health in the workplace. It is a vital but sometimes overlooked aspect of health and safety. Genetically Modified Food and Crops Genetically Modified Food and Crops Title Page: Following the American Psychological Association's Guidelines Abstract Since the 's scientists have been altering crops, including some of the food we eat (Fairly & .
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