Literature represents much of the very best of humanity's writings, and it is not by any accident that, after bestsellers and sensationalized books have faded from memory, literature continues to thrive and remain intensely relevant to contemporary human conditions. Literature's stories and texts survive the fires of time. This is why for decades and centuries - long after their authors have gone silent - the writings of Dante, Shakespeare, and Austen, among so many other vital voices, will continue to captivate readers and comment upon life.
SHARE Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. In the early s, a psychologist named J.
Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity. He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page.
Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution.
In the s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century. If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square.
The correct solution, however, requires you to draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots. Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots.
The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box.
The idea went viral via s-era media and word of mouth, of course. Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box.
Management consultants in the s and s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients. Because the solution is, in hindsight, deceptively simple, clients tended to admit they should have thought of it themselves.
Or so their consultants would have them believe. There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Speakers, trainers, training program developers, organizational consultants, and university professors all had much to say about the vast benefits of outside-the-box thinking.
It was an appealing and apparently convincing message.
LITERARY GENRES Prerequisite: The main focus of these courses is to study the relationship between form and meaning. The broadest literary ‘genres’ (or kinds of literature) are poetry, drama and prose (fiction or nonfiction). Who will be the Pulitzer Prize Winner for Fiction? April 5, The Pulitzer Prizes will be announced April 18 at 3pm ET. Because the names of the finalists are not released ahead of time, the winner is a surprise every year. Early Reviewers: Free advance copies of books. You are either not logged in, or not signed up for the Early Reviewers/Member Giveaway program. To sign up, click here. If you are a publisher interested in participating in Early Reviewers, click here.
Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts.
No one, that is, before two different research teams —Clarke Burnham with Kenneth Davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert Weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure. Both teams followed the same protocol of dividing participants into two groups.
The second group was told that the solution required the lines to be drawn outside the imaginary box bordering the dot array. Would you like to guess the percentage of the participants in the second group who solved the puzzle correctly?
Most people assume that 60 percent to 90 percent of the group given the clue would solve the puzzle easily. In fact, only a meager 25 percent did. In other words, the difference could easily be due to what statisticians call sampling error.
Solving this problem requires people to literally think outside the box. That is, direct and explicit instructions to think outside the box did not help. That this advice is useless when actually trying to solve a problem involving a real box should effectively have killed off the much widely disseminated—and therefore, much more dangerous—metaphor that out-of-the-box thinking spurs creativity.The Moments That Make Us Who We Are.
Life provides turning points of many kinds, but the most powerful of all may be character-revealing moments. The Hollywood Reporter is your source for breaking news about Hollywood and entertainment, including movies, TV, reviews and industry blogs.
In the past several decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological development and use of information and facts technology will. Early Reviewers: Free advance copies of books.
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How Does Toni Morrison's Beloved Reflect a Postcolonial Sensitivity - Toni Morrison defines her writing as a kind of literary archaeology which relies on . LITERARY GENRES Prerequisite: The main focus of these courses is to study the relationship between form and meaning.
The broadest literary ‘genres’ (or kinds of literature) are poetry, drama and prose (fiction or nonfiction).