History[ edit ] Human Development Theory has roots in ancient philosophy and early economic theory. Aristotle noted that "Wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking, for it is merely useful for something else", and Adam Smith and Karl Marx were concerned with human capabilities. The theory grew in importance in the s with the work of Amartya Sen and his Human Capabilities perspective, which played a role in his receiving the Nobel Prize in Economics. Representative of these are the Human-Scale Development approach developed by Manfred Max-Neef in the mid-to-late s which addresses human needs and satisfiers which are more or less static across time and context.
Socioeconomic sustainability Human Development Index HDI The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.
The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with different human development outcomes.
These contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions. The health dimension is assessed by life expectancy at birth, the education dimension is measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and more and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age.
The standard of living dimension is measured by gross national income per capita.
The scores for the three HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean. Refer to Technical notes for more details.
The HDI simplifies and captures only part of what human development entails. It does not reflect on inequalities, poverty, human security, empowerment, etc. The HDRO offers the other composite indices as broader proxy on some of the key issues of human development, inequality, gender disparity and poverty.
A fuller picture of a country's level of human development requires analysis of other indicators and information presented in the statistical annex of the report.Dimensions of Human Development SABINA ALKIRE * what is a dimension, and what are the multiple dimensions of interest?
This paper develops an account of dimensions of human development, and shows its participatory development, and basic needs, and compares and contrasts them with the account sketchedhere. .
A composite index that uses indicators of the most basic dimensions of deprivation: a short life (i.e., longevity), lack of basic education (i.e., knowledge), and lack of access to public and private resources (i.e., decent standard of living). The Human Development Index (HDI) measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development.
The Human Development Index was developed as an alternative to simple money metrics. It is an easy-to-understand numerical measure made up of what most people believe are the very basic ingredients of human well-being: health, education, and income.
In the United States, for example, Measure of America has been publishing human development reports since with a modified index, the human development index American Human Development Index, which measures the same three basic dimensions but uses slightly different indicators to better reflect the U.S.
context and to maximize . The Human Development Index (HDI) is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development. The United Nations use The Human Development Index (HDI) as a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living.
A composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living.