Climate change and family planning:
Howell and Doris H.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Pomegranates have been known for hundreds of years for their multiple health benefits, including antimicrobial activity.
The recent surge in multidrug-resistant bacteria and the possibility of widespread global virus pandemics necessitate the Effects of family planning to health for additional preventative and therapeutic options to conventional drugs. Research indicates that pomegranates and their extracts may serve as natural alternatives due to their potency against a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens.
Nearly every part of the pomegranate plant has been tested for antimicrobial activities, including the fruit juice, peel, arils, flowers, and bark. Many studies have utilized pomegranate peel with success. There are various phytochemical compounds in pomegranate that have demonstrated antimicrobial activity, but most of the studies have found that ellagic acid and larger hydrolyzable tannins, such as punicalagin, have the highest activities.
In some cases the combination of the pomegranate constituents offers the most benefit. The positive clinical results on pomegranate and suppression of oral bacteria are intriguing and worthy of further study.
Egyptians used pomegranates to treat a number of different infections [ 1 ].
It was utilized as a traditional remedy for thousands of years under the Ayurvedic system of medicine, with extracts from the rind of the fruit and bark of the tree being effective against diarrhea and dysentery [ 2 ]. Over the years there have been many small studies undertaken in different areas of the world on the bactericidal effects of pomegranates on a number of highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains.
These studies normally determine bactericidal potency of different extracts of the pomegranate plant against a range of different bacteria, utilizing disc diffusion assays or minimum inhibitory concentration MIC.
Methanol extracts of the fruit, especially the peel, exhibit the broadest antibacterial activity [ 3 — 8 ] Table 1which can vary depending on the pomegranate variety tested [ 9 ].
Methanol extracts of pomegranate are high in hydrolyzable tannins punicalins and punicalaginsellagic acid, a component of ellagitannins, and gallic acid, a component of gallotannins [ 10 ] Figure 1.
Mass spectrometry data shows that pomegranate contains oligomeric ellagitannin with a degree of polymerization of up to 5 core glucose units [ 11 ]. These molecules may be the most potent antibacterial compounds in pomegranate.
However, other compounds also have activity and may contribute synergistically as mixtures to bring about the effects, including anthocyanins pelargonidingalactose and cyanidinglucose and flavonols quercetin and myricetin [ 8 ].
Effect of pomegranate extracts on growth of bacteria that influence human health. Effects on Enteric Bacteria Enteric bacteria can be either probiotic and exert beneficial effects on the gut microflora, or they can be pathogenic and cause life-threatening infections and disease.
Pomegranate has positive effects on both probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. It also shows promise in food preservation by protecting against pathogenic bacteria that can cause food poisoning.
Inhibition of Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria Many foodborne bacteria cause serious gastrointestinal infections, such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli E.
H7 which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.
In Thailand, a study was undertaken in which extracts of pomegranate were tested for their antibacterial activity against different strains of E.
Growth inhibition zones, using the agar disc diffusion method, ranged from 7 to 17 mm. An aqueous extract of pomegranate was highly effective against E.
In another Thai study, an ethanolic extract of pomegranate had MICs of 0. This extract exhibited both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, indicating that it may be an effective adjunct treatment for E.
Pomegranate has exhibited bactericidal activity against other food and waterborne pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella Typhi S. Typhi [ 1415 ], Vibrio cholerae [ 1617 ], Yersinia enterocolitica [ 7 ], Shigella spp.
Typhoid fever causal agent, S. Typhi is a life-threatening enteric infection that can be transmitted by consuming food or drinking water contaminated with feces from an infected person.
It is more common in less industrialized countries. Extracts of pomegranate fruit pericarp were tested by agar well diffusion and found to be highly active when compared to a reference concentration-response curve for ampicillin [ 14 ].
In another study which screened plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, strong antibacterial activity was exhibited by the methanol extracts of pomegranate [ 15 ].
In one study examining bactericidal activity of plants used by Peruvian people to combat cholera, pomegranate peel extract and tea infusions were effective [ 17 ]. In one study, ethanolic pomegranate extracts exhibited greater antibacterial activity than the antibiotic chloramphenicol, but lower activity than trimethoprim [ 18 ].
Shigella sonnei showed the highest susceptibility to the extracts. Pomegranate extract was evaluated in several studies for the ability to decontaminate meat surfaces and maintain food quality. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus S.
In another study, dipping raw chicken breasts in 0.Jhpiego provides the global health community with information, expertise and opportunities to support high quality health systems in limited-resource settings. Free or Low-Cost Birth Control. Would my visit at a Family Planning Program clinic really be confidential?
Yes. Federal Title X regulations require clinics to assure. Natural Family Planning (NFP) is the general title for the scientific, natural and moral methods of family planning that can help married couples either achieve or postpone pregnancies.
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May 08, · For many women, a family planning clinic is their entry point into the health care system and one they consider their usual source of care.2, 7 In , publicly funded family planning services helped prevent million unintended pregnancies, including , teen pregnancies.
2. Evidence for Pomegranate in Controlling Bacteria That Affect the Human Body Effects on Enteric Bacteria. Enteric bacteria can be either probiotic and exert beneficial effects on the gut microflora, or they can be pathogenic and cause life-threatening infections and disease.
Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved". Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as.