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Geological setting[ edit ] Mud volcano systems are fairly common on Earth, and particularly in the Indonesian province of East Java. Beneath the island of Java is a half-graben lying in the east-west direction, filled with over-pressured marine carbonates and marine muds.
The East Java Basin contains a significant amount of oil and gas reserves, therefore the region is known as a major concession area for mineral exploration. Wunut, Carat and Tanggulangin. It has been suggested that a small 20 barrel mud loss occurred in the Banjar Panji-1 well seven minutes after the Yogyakarta earthquake consistent with the time taken for the earthquake seismic waves to reach the Lusi location  though there is no clear report of these losses in the drilling data, and it has also been alternatively reported that these losses occurred one hour before the earthquake.
This mud loss problem was Cause of lapindo hut mud flood stopped when loss circulation material was pumped into the well, a standard practice in drilling an oil and gas well. The kick was reported by Lapindo Brantas drilling engineers as having been killed within three hours,   though alternative interpretations of drilling records, specifically ongoing fluctuations in downhole drillpipe pressure, indicate that the kick continued for at least 24 hours.
Dense drilling mud and cement were pumped down the Banjar Panji-1 well at various times in the 48 hours after the mud flow started, in an attempt to kill the surface mud eruption. For the scientific community, however, it was a chance to study the evolving geological process of a mud volcano. In the past, mud vulcanologists could only study existing or ancient mud volcanoes during dormant periods.
Thus, Lusi is a rare occasion and a unique opportunity to conduct scientific experiments to further our understanding. It also offers opportunities to study the down hole condition of a mud volcano from the neighboring Banjar-Panji exploration well lithologies. To explain what triggered the mud volcano, three hypotheses have been suggested, though none has won universal support: Drilling-induced fracturing or fault reactivation reflecting a man-made event Earthquake-triggered fault reactivation reflecting a natural event Geothermal processes reflecting geothermal heating Drilling-induced fracturing, hence a man-made event[ edit ] From a model developed by geologists working in the UK the drilling pipe penetrated the overpressured limestonecausing entrainment of mud by water.
The lack of protective casing in the bottom m of the borehole is considered a key reason why the drilling kick could not be controlled and why pressures during the kick were high enough to initiate hydraulic fracturing.
Their analysis suggests that the well has a low resistance to a kick. The well may have suffered an underground blowout that resulted in a surface breach.
Earthquake-induced fault reactivation, hence a natural event[ edit ] The relatively close timing of the Yogyakarta earthquake, the problems of mud loss and kick in the well and the birth of the mud volcano continue to interest geoscientists.
Was the mud volcano due to the same seismic event that triggered the earthquake? Geoscientists from Norway, Russia, France and Indonesia have suggested that the shaking caused by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the underlying Kalibeng clay layer, releasing gases and causing a pressure change large enough to reactivate a major fault nearby the Watukosek faultcreating a mud flow path that caused Lusi.
Increased seep activity in the mud volcanoes along the Watukosek fault coincided with the May 27, seismic event.
A major fault system may have been reactivated, resulting in the formation of a mud volcano. Geothermal process[ edit ] Lusi is near the arc of volcanoes in Indonesia where geothermal activities are abundant.
The hot mud suggests that some form of geothermal heating from the nearby magmatic volcano may have been involved. Cause[ edit ] Mudflow, photo taken on July 21, There was controversy as to what triggered the eruption and whether the event was a natural disaster or not.
According to PT Lapindo Brantas it was the Yogyakarta earthquake that triggered the mud flow eruption, and not their drilling activities. At a hearing before the parliamentary members, senior executives of PT Lapindo Brantas argued that the earthquake was so powerful that it had reactivated previously inactive faults and also creating deep underground fractures, allowing the mud to breach the surface, and that their company presence was coincidental, which should exempt them from paying compensation damage to the victims.
This argument was also recurrently echoed by Aburizal Bakriethe Indonesian Minister of Welfare at that time, whose family firm controls the operator company PT Lapindo Brantas. The intensity of the earthquake at the drilling site was estimated to have been only magnitude 2 on Richter scale, the same effect as a heavy truck passing over the area.
Soon afterwards then- vice president Jusuf Kalla announced that PT Lapindo Brantas and the owner, the Bakrie Groupwould have to compensate thousands of victims affected by the mud flows.
It is further noted that steel encasing lining had not been used which could have prevented the disaster. Thirteen Lapindo Brantas' executives and engineers face twelve charges of violating Indonesian laws.
One study found that the mud volcano was collapsing under its own weight, possibly beginning caldera formation. Their research used GPS and satellite data recorded between June and September that showed the area affected by Lusi had subsided by between.
They proposed that the subsidence was due to the weight of mud and collapse of rock strata due to the excavation of mud from beneath the surface. Their study also found that while some parts of Sidoarjo were subsiding, others were rising suggesting that the Watukosek fault system had been reactivated because of the eruption.
After new hot gas flows began to appear, workers started relocating families and some were injured in the process. The workers were taken to a local hospital to undergo treatment for severe burns. In Siring Barat, more families were displaced and in Kelurahan Jatirejo, new families were expected to be affected by the new flows of gas.
Protesting families took to the streets demanding compensation which in turn added more delays to the already stressed detour road for Jalan Raya Porong and the Porong-Gempol toll road.including Lapindo Brantas – have called the mud flow a natural disaster, it is most likely that it occurred as a consequence of PT Lapindo Brantas’s failure to install a casing around the well to the levels required under Indonesian mining regulations.
Hot Mud Flood, Sidoarjo, East Java Highlight The mud flood has presently engulfed houses as well as 18 schools, 2 government offices, liability for paying for the efforts to tackle the mud-volcano disaster at the Lapindo Brantas gas exploration well in .
The mud began to gush from the gas exploration field of Lapindo Brantas Inc - a subsidiary of the Bakrie Group - on May An area of rice fields and residential land measuring hectares is now a mud lake.
Civics Individual Paper OVERCOMING PT. LAPINDO BRANTAS HOT MUD CASE By: Aditya Rahman Sulaiman 10/HK// International Undergraduate Programme Lapindo hot mud flood case or we usually called it “banjir lumpur panas Lapindo” is an event of the unstoppable mud gush in Kecamatan Porong, Kabupaten Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur and this accident have been happened since 29 may There are 2 views of the cause of this Lapindo hut mud flood case.
First, some scholars said that the primary cause of this event was because drilling mistakes and technical problems. Other theory said that it was happened because natural disaster, this theory explaining that sooner or later hot mud gush will be arise, the lapindo’s mining.
There are 2 views of the cause of this Lapindo hut mud flood case. First, some scholars said that the primary cause of this event was because drilling mistakes and technical problems. First, some scholars said that the primary cause of this event was because drilling mistakes and technical problems.