User Testing 5 Summary: We often advocate using a parallel and iterative design process to explore design diversity, because it produces much better user experiences. A cheap way of implementing this type of design process is rapid paper prototyping. Paper prototyping is not only efficient for progressing designs quickly and allowing designers to find their best-of-breed with minimal investment, but it is also fast, fun, and easy to learn.
Its name is misleading because the huge expanse of floating marine debris is actually more like a soup of confetti-sized plastic bits, produced by the runoff of our throwaway lifestyle that has made its way into our oceans.
The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, the most notorious stretch of plastic debris, is located northeast of Hawaii, about miles from Hawaii and California. In any case, plastic marine debris is now found on the surface of Case study sarah ocean on Earth. NOAA Some plastic and marine debris comes from fishing gear, offshore oil and gas platforms, and ships.
But 80 percent of it comes from the land —litter that gets stuck in storm drains and is washed into rivers and out to sea, the legal and illegal dumping of garbage and appliances, and plastic resin pellets inadvertently spilled and unloaded by plastic manufacturers.
And no matter where the litter originates, once it reaches the ocean, it becomes a planetary problem as garbage travels thousands of miles carried by the gyres.
The lightness and durability that make plastic such a useful and versatile material for manufacturers also make it a long-term problem for the environment.
Trash Travels estimates that plastic bags can take 20 years Case study sarah decompose, plastic bottles up to years, and fishing line, years; but in fact, no one really knows how long plastics will remain in the ocean. With exposure to UV rays and the ocean environment, plastic breaks down into smaller and smaller fragments.
The majority of the plastic found in the ocean are tiny pieces less than 1 cm. The greatest amount of plastic was found in the North Atlantic Gyre, which contains the Sargasso Sea.
The most plastic collected during a minute tow was pieces, which, if scaled up, would be equal to aboutpieces per square kilometer. The average concentration of samples would roughly equal 20, pieces per square kilometer. While discarded plastic in the U.
Where has it all gone? Lead scientist Kara Lavender Law speculated that some is being eaten by marine animals, some has broken down into bits too small to be captured by tow nets, some gets washed up onto beaches, and some is sinking to the ocean floor.
According to Project Kaiseia non-profit also studying marine debris, 70 percent of the man-made waste that enters the ocean sinks to the bottom. That means that the plastic soup is only the 30 percent of the debris that floats. No one knows what lies deep down because so far, there have been no studies of the plastic on the ocean floor.
But we know the plastic debris on the surface of the ocean is taking its toll on marine life. Animals get strangled in fishing lines, nets, and plastic litter.
Fish and seabirds ingest bits of plastic they mistake for food that can block their intestinal tracts and kill them, or make them feel full so that they do not eat real food. Inoff the coast of Southern California, he discovered the ratio of plastic to plankton was 2.
Plastic bits also create habitats for microorganisms and other species, allowing would-be invasive species to hitch rides to new areas of the ocean. A recent study found that plastics take up and accumulate persistent organic pollutants POPs such as carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting polychlorinated biphenyls PCBspolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHsand organochlorine pesticides such as DDD, a derivative of DDT.
According to Moore, plastic debris can attract and concentrate POPs up to a million times their levels in the surrounding seawater, and when consumed by marine animals, the POPs endanger both the creatures that ingest them and humans higher up on the food chain, especially infants.
Math Case Study #2 2 For example, if a low-performing student is learning at a rate similar to the growth rate of other students in the same classroom environment, then he or she is demonstrating the. Case Study Sarah T. is a year-old college student who is ovo-vegetarian. She is 5 feet 7 inches tall, weighs pounds, and is physically active most days, riding her bike to and from her apartment off campus%(6). Disengagement Case Study: Sarah’s Story INTRODUCTION As an adolescent, Sarah* became involved in a series of violent extremist right-wing (XRW) groups.
The areas are huge, and the debris is unevenly distributed and always shifting. A cleanup would entail filtering enormous amounts of water, and the by-catch of plankton and other marine organisms would be harmful to ocean ecosystems.
Moreover, the fact that the trash gyres are in the open ocean, in international waters, makes it difficult to get governments to invest in research or cleanup efforts. Undaunted, Project Kaisei, on its two expeditions to the North Pacific Gyre, has been working to develop and test new methods for removal of some of the plastic waste.
Its goal is to learn more about how to efficiently remove the floating plastic, and to use new techniques to recycle the material into fuel or other products. Project Kaisei plans to test new, and scaled-up catch methods on future expeditions, as well as passive netting and catch methods that require little fuel and have low impacts on marine life.
Moore and Algalita believe that the best way to deal with the plastic debris is to stop the waste from entering the ocean in the first place: If you want to clean the gyre, clean your beach.
Findings from these expeditions and others will be shared at the 5th International Marine Debris Conference in March, LTC 00 Case Study #3 Challenge: Client concerned about exhausting benefits and being a burden on spouse Dan and his wife, Melissa, had watched his .
The case study approach is particularly useful to employ when there is a need to obtain an in-depth appreciation of an issue, event or phenomenon of interest, in .
The Family, Infant and Preschool Program (FIPP) Center for the Advanced Study of Excellence (CASE) in Early Childhood and Family Support Practices is a National Center of Excellence in Early Childhood. Case Study #6: Age group Though the disease primarily effects children, Mitochondrial diseases are even more complex in adults because detectable changes in mtDNA occur as we age and, conversely, the aging process itself may result from deteriorating mitochondrial function.
Changing Lives Through Leadership, Research & Service. The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing (FPB) at Case Western Reserve University is a globally recognized leader in nursing education and research. Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research (e.g., epidemiological) involving human beings.
The goal of a clinical study is to assess the safety, efficacy, and / or the mechanism of action of an investigational medicinal product or procedure, or new drug or device that is in development.